Airborne inoculum dynamics of Polystigma amygdalinum and progression of almond red leaf blotch disease in Catalonia, NE Spain
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Cita bibliográficaPons‐Solé, G., Miarnau, X., Torguet, L., Lázaro, E., Vicent, A. & Luque, J. (2023). Airborne inoculum dynamics of Polystigma amygdalinum and progression of almond red leaf blotch disease in Catalonia, NE Spain. Annals of Applied Biology, published on-line [27 February 2023].
The dynamics of airborne ascospores and disease progress of red leaf blotch (RLB) of almond, caused by Polystigma amygdalinum, and their correlations with weather variables were studied from 2019 to 2021 in two almond orchards located in Lleida, NE Spain. Airborne ascospores were detected and quantified by real-time qPCR using species-specific primers for P. amygdalinum. Ascospores were detected mainly from April to June, with a high variability between the yearly cumulative concentrations. Positive significant correlations were found between the weekly proportion of airborne ascospores and the number of wet and mild days—either combined or separated— accumulated rainfall, number of rainy days, accumulated low temperatures on wet days, and mean and maximum relative humidity. In contrast, several thermal variables (maximum temperature, VPD, and number of warm days) were negatively correlated with ascospore catches. Positive significant correlations were found between the cumulative proportion of ascospores and RLB incidence and severity. Weekly variations in RLB incidence and severity showed significant positive correlations with the number of warm days while negative with the number of mild days. Severity was also positively correlated with several thermal variables (mean, maximum, and minimum temperature, and VPD), and negatively correlated with the number of cold days and wet and mild days. Stronger correlations were generally found with ascospore catches or disease progress when using concurrent weekly weather data. Gompertz, monomolecular, and logistic growth models were evaluated to describe RLB disease progress.