Breakdown of Self-Incompatibility in Citrus by Temperature Stress, Bud Pollination and Polyploidization
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AuthorMontalt, Rafael; Prósper, Laura; Vives, María C.; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Aleza, Pablo
Cita bibliográficaMontalt, R., Prósper, L., Vives, M. C., Navarro, L., Ollitrault, P. & Aleza, P. (2022). Breakdown of self-incompatibility in citrus by temperature stress, bud pollination and polyploidization. Agriculture, 12(2), 273.
Self-incompatibility (SI) is present in around half of all species of flowering plants. SI limits endogamy and contributes to increased genetic diversity. SI is a very important trait in citrus because, when coupled with parthenocarpy, it allows seedless fruit production. Otherwise, SI is an impediment to genetic studies and breeding programs. Temperature stress, bud pollination and polyploidization can induce the breakdown of the SI mechanism in several species. In this work, we investigated how the SI mechanism can be broken down in two self-incompatible diploid citrus genotypes: ‘Fortune’ mandarin and ‘Clemenules’ clementine. The influence of temperature stress on the SI mechanism was assessed in self-pollinated flowers of ‘Fortune’ mandarins subjected to 2 temperature regimes (10 °C and 30 °C), whereas the bud pollination effect was investigated in the same genotype and in ‘Clemenules’ clementines cultivated under field conditions. The tetraploid ‘Clemenules’ clementine cultivated under field conditions was used to study if tetraploidization can bypass the SI reaction. Histological observations of pollen tube growth and seed production in self-pollinated flowers were used to evaluate the breakdown of SI, while the genetic analysis with SSR and SNP markers confirmed that all recovered plants were zygotic and had been originated by selfing. Our results confirm that the SI reaction can be surpassed by temperature stress, bud pollination and tetraploidy. To our knowledge, this is the first report in citrus in which the SI reaction breakdown by these three different strategies is demonstrated by molecular markers.