Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) and its natural enemies in Spain
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AuthorHermoso-De-Mendoza, Alfonso; Álvarez, Almudena; Michelena, José Manuel; González, Pilar; Cambra, Mariano
Cita bibliográficaHermoso-de-Mendoza, A., Álvarez, A., Michelena, J. M., González, P. & Cambra, M. (2008). Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy)(Hemiptera, Aphididae) and its natural enemies in Spain. IOBC wprs Bulletin, 38, 225-232.
The aphid Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) is the most efficient vector of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in the world, and it can transmit the more aggressive isolates of CTV. T. citricida is present in most of the zones growing citrus in the world, but it was absent from the Mediterranean Basin and North America until middle 1990’s. Nevertheless, it was detected on citrus trees in 1994 in Madeira, in 1995 in Florida, in 2002 in Asturias, Spain (in yellow water traps), in 2003 in northern mainland Portugal, and in 2004 in southern Galicia, Spain, even though the three last detections were not published till 2005. As a consequence of its detection in Spain, several surveys and studies were undertaken from 2005. The main results are listed below. Currently, T. citricida is present on citrus along the Atlantic coast in the northwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula. In Asturias, it presents a minimum in winter and other one in summer, but the last one is shorter than the minimum which Mediterranean citrus aphids have too. Chaenomeles speciosa (Rosaceae) has been found as an occasional alternative host for T. citricida. No winter eggs of T. citricida have been seen. CTV spread has not been detected in northern Spain. T. citricida is attacked in the Atlantic area by several natural enemy species, most of them present in the Mediterranean zone.