Postharvest Treatments with Sulfur-Containing Food Additives to Control Major Fungal Pathogens of Stone Fruits
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Cita bibliográficaMartínez-Blay, V., Taberner, V., Pérez-Gago, M. B. & Palou, L. (2021). Postharvest Treatments with Sulfur-Containing Food Additives to Control Major Fungal Pathogens of Stone Fruits. Foods, 10(9), 2115.
The sulfur-containing salts, classified as food additives, sodium metabisulfite (SMBS), potassium metabisulfite (PMBS), aluminum sulfate (AlS), and aluminum potassium sulfate (AlPS), were evaluated for their activity against Monilinia fructicola, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Geotrichum candidum, the most economically important fungal pathogens causing postharvest disease of stone fruit. In in vitro tests with potato dextrose agar (PDA) Petri dishes amended with different concentrations of the salts (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 mM), SMBS and PMBS at all concentrations, AlS above 20 mM, and AlPS above 30 mM, completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the three fungi after incubation at 25º C for up to 10 days. In in vivo primary screenings with artificially inoculated nectarines, aqueous solutions of the four salts reduced the incidence and severity of brown rot (BR) at concentrations of 10 and 50 mM, whereas only AlS and AlPS reduced Rhizopus rot (RR), and none of the salts was effective against sour rot (SR). Solutions at 100 mM were phytotoxic and injured the fruit peel. In small-scale trials, 1 min dip treatments at 20º C in SMBS or PMBS at 10 mM significantly reduced the incidence and severity of BR after incubation at 20º C for up to 8 days. Conversely, dips in AlS and AlPS reduced neither BR nor RR. Results highlight the potential of SMBS and PMBS as new nonpolluting tools for the integrated control of BR, but not RR and SR, on stone fruit.