GRAS, plant- and animal-derived compounds as alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases of fresh horticultural produce
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Cita bibliográficaPalou, L., Ali, A., Fallik, E., & Romanazzi, G. (2016). GRAS, plant-and animal-derived compounds as alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases of fresh horticultural produce. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 122, 41-52.
Postharvest decay caused by fungal pathogens is one of the most important factors causing economic losses for the worldwide industry of fresh horticultural produce. Despite the positive results of the use of conventional chemical fungicides, alternatives for decay control are needed because of increasing concerns related to their widespread and continued use. Low-toxicity chemical alternatives evaluated for control of postharvest diseases of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruit, and fruit-like vegetables are reviewed. These compounds should have acceptable antifungal activity with known and very low toxicological effects on mammals and minimal impact on the environment. In addition, they should be exempt from residue tolerances on agricultural commodities. Authorities confirm these characteristics by approving them as food additives or preservatives or as generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substances. Among these, the most important are inorganic or organic salts, e.g. carbonates, sorbates, benzoates, paraben salts, etc., and composite edible coatings formulated with antifungal ingredients. Hydrocolloids (polysaccharides such as cellulose derivatives, alginates, pectins, or gums, and various plant proteins) and food-grade lipids are the main components of the matrix of composite coatings. Interesting antifungal ingredients for edible coatings include GRAS salts, essential oils, and antagonistic microorganisms. Low-toxicity chemicals of natural origin include plant extracts and essential oils, antifungal peptides and small proteins, and coatings based on chitosan or plant gels like those from Aloe spp. Efficacy and overall performance, advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and potential combinations of these alternatives in hurdle technologies for postharvest decay control are discussed