Characterization of Mycosphaerellaceae species associated with citrus greasy spot in Panama and Spain
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AuthorAguilera-Cogley, Vidal; Berbegal, Mónica; Catalá, Santiago; Brentu, Francis C.; Armengol, Josep; Vicent, Antonio
Cita bibliográficaAguilera-Cogley VA, Berbegal M, Català S, Brentu FC, Armengol J, Vicent A (2017) Characterization of Mycosphaerellaceae species associated with citrus greasy spot in Panama and Spain. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0189585.
Greasy spot of citrus, caused by Zasmidium citri-griseum (= Mycosphaerella citri), is widely distributed in the Caribbean Basin, inducing leaf spots, premature defoliation, and yield loss. Greasy spot-like symptoms were frequently observed in humid citrus-growing regions in Panama as well as in semi-arid areas in Spain, but disease aetiology was unknown. Citrus-growing areas in Panama and Spain were surveyed and isolates of Mycosphaerellaceae were obtained from citrus greasy spot lesions. A selection of isolates from Panama (n = 22) and Spain (n = 16) was assembled based on their geographical origin, citrus species, and affected tissue. The isolates were characterized based on multi-locus DNA (ITS and EF-1α) sequence analyses, morphology, growth at different temperatures, and independent pathogenicity tests on the citrus species most affected in each country. Reference isolates and sequences were also included in the analysis. Isolates from Panama were identified as Z. citri-griseum complex, and others from Spain attributed to Amycosphaerella africana. Isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex had a significantly higher optimal growth temperature (26.8°C) than those of A. africana (19.3°C), which corresponded well with their actual biogeographical range. The isolates of the Z. citri-griseum complex from Panama induced typical greasy spot symptoms in ‘Valencia’ sweet orange plants and the inoculated fungi were reisolated. No symptoms were observed in plants of the ‘Ortanique’ tangor inoculated with A. africana. These results demonstrate the presence of citrus greasy spot, caused by Z. citri-griseum complex, in Panama whereas A. africana was associated with greasy spot-like symptoms in Spain.