Effect of host deprivation on the foraging behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid parasitoid Tamarixia radiata: observations from the laboratory and the field
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Cita bibliográficaTena, A., Stouthamer, R., Hoddle, M. S. (2017). Effect of host deprivation on the foraging behavior of the asian citrus psyllid parasitoid tamarixia radiata: Observations from the laboratory and the field. Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata, 163(1), 51-59.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a significant citrus pest and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been released in various citrus-producing areas in classical biological control programs targeting D. citri. We investigated the effect of host deprivation on the foraging behavior and patch utilization by T. radiata. In the laboratory, females deprived of hosts for 3 days tended to leave patches of 12 nymphs without parasitizing hosts during the ca. 30 min they spent in the patch before leaving. Moreover, half of these females failed to host feed, and those that did host feed, on average, needed more than 15 min to complete feeding. Conversely, non-host-deprived females parasitized on average three nymphs before leaving patches without host feeding during the ca. 39 min they spent in the patch. These laboratory observations were compared to mass-reared female T. radiata that were released onto colonies of D. citri nymphs infesting citrus in the field. Release vials were provisioned with honey and these females had no opportunities to host feed over the 1-to 2-day containment period prior to release. When introduced onto D. citri colonies, 68% T. radiata females abandoned D. citri patches prior to probing hosts, in part, because Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), tending colonies disturbed searching parasitoids. These results from laboratory and field studies are discussed in the context of classical biological control, with the aim of understanding how to manipulate host availability and ant activity so establishment rates and impact of T. radiata can be improved.