Unreduced Megagametophyte Production in Lemon Occurs via Three Meiotic Mechanisms, Predominantly Second-Division Restitution
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Cita bibliográficaRouiss, H., Cuenca, J., Navarro, L., Ollitrault, P., Aleza, P. (2017b). Unreduced megagametophyte production in lemon occurs via three meiotic mechanisms, predominantly second-division restitution. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, 1211.
Unreduced (2n) gametes have played a pivotal role in polyploid plant evolution and are useful for sexual polyploid breeding in various species, particularly for developing new seedless citrus varieties. The underlying mechanisms of 2n gamete formation were recently revealed for Citrus reticulata but remain poorly understood for other citrus species, including lemon (C. limon [L.] Burm. f.). Here, we investigated the frequency and causal meiotic mechanisms of 2n megagametophyte production in lemon. We genotyped 48progeny plants of two lemon genotypes, "Eureka Frost" and "Fino", using 16 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and 18 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers to determine the genetic origin of the progenies and the underlying mechanisms for 2n gamete formation. We utilized a maximum-likelihood method based on parental heterozygosity restitution (PHR) of centromeric markers and analysis of PHR patterns along the chromosome. The frequency of 2n gamete production was 4.9% for "Eureka Frost" and 8.3% for "Fino", with three meiotic mechanisms leading to 2n gamete formation. We performed the maximum-likelihood method at the individual level via centromeric marker analysis, finding that 88% of the hybrids arose from second-division restitution (SDR), 7% from first-division restitution (FDR) or pre-meiotic doubling (PRD), and 5% from post-meiotic genome doubling (PMD). The pattern of PHR along LG1 confirmed that SDR is the main mechanism for 2n gamete production. Recombination analysis between markers in this LG revealed partial chiasma interference on both arms. We discuss the implications of these restitution mechanisms for citrus breeding and lemon genetics.