Rootstock influence on iron uptake responses in Citrus leaves and their regulation under the Fe paradox effect
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AuthorMartínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Primo-Capella, Amparo; Quinones, Ana; Bermejo, Almudena; Forner-Giner, María A.
Cita bibliográficaMartinez-Cuenca, M., Primo-Capella, A., Quinones, A., Bermejo, A., Forner-Giner, M. A. (2017). Rootstock influence on iron uptake responses in citrus leaves and their regulation under the fe paradox effect. Peerj, 5, e3553.
Background and aims: This work evaluates the regulation of iron uptake responses in Citrus leaves and their involvement in the Fe paradox effect. Methods: Experiments were performed in field-grown 'Navelina' trees grafted onto two Cleopatra mandarin x Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. hybrids with different Fe-chlorosis symptoms: 030146 (non-chlorotic) and 030122 (chlorotic). Results: Chlorotic leaves were smaller than non-chlorotic ones for both dry weight (DW) and area basis, and exhibited marked photosynthetic state affection, but reduced catalase and peroxidase enzymatic activities. Although both samples had a similar total Fe concentration on DW, it was lower in chlorotic leaves when expressed on an area basis. A similar pattern was observed for the total Fe concentration in the apoplast and cell sap and in active Fe (Fe2+) concentration. FRO2 gene expression and ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity were also lower in chlorotic samples, while HA1 and IRT1 were more induced. Despite similar apoplasmic pH, K+/Ca2+ was higher in chlorotic leaves, and both citrate and malate concentrations in total tissue and apoplast fluid were lower. Conclusion: (1) The rootstock influences Fe acquisition system in the leaf; (2) the increased sensitivity to Fe-deficiency as revealed by chlorosis and decreased biomass, was correlated with lower FC-R activity and lower organic acid level in leaf cells, which could cause a decreased Fe mobility and trigger other Fe-stress responses in this organ to enhance acidification and Fe uptake inside cells; and (3) the chlorosis paradox phenomenon in citrus likely occurs as a combination of a marked FC-R activity impairment in the leaf and the strong growth inhibition in this organ.