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The domestication of plants can be considered as the first genetic manipulation of living organisms and it is associated with the origin of agriculture, and represents the major contribution of biotechnology to the development of mankind. The challenges the agricultural sector faces in the coming decades are population growth and the increasing demand for raw materials for food, feed, as well as the consumer preferences, environmental and legal aspects, and the overall globalisation of the economy. The agricultural biotechnology applications will undoubtedly play a role in meeting these challenges. Spain has competent scientific groups devoted to basic and applied research, with a wide knowledge on agricultural biotechnology. The transfer of the business sector needs to the scientific field, coordinating the R&D companies and research groups from universities and public research organisms is an objective to be attained in the future.