Genetic diversity in the orange subfamily aurantioideae .2. Genetic relationships among genera and species
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Genetic relationships were studied by means of ten isoenzymatic systems, at the genus and species level, using two distances and four methods of aggregation in a germplasm collection of 198 cultivars and accessions of 54 species belonging to Citrus and 13 related genera. The most consistent results were obtained by the chord distance and the neighbor-joining clustering method. Citrus species were distributed in two main groups: the orange-mandarin group and the lime-lemon-citron-pummelo group. The species C. halimii and C. tachibana are not included in these groups. Mandarin species fall into three main subgroups: one includes C. sinensis; the second, C. aurantium, the third, small-fruit species. The citron, the pummelo and the ancient lemon subgroups form a cluster to which the species belonging to subgenus Papeda and the cultivated limes, lemons and bergamots are related. Microcitrus spp, to which Severinia buxifolia and Atalantia ceylanica seem to be related, cluster with the lime-lemon-citron-pummelo group while Fortunella is close to the orange-mandarin group. Poncirus trifoliata, the most important species for citrus rootstock improvement is located far from Citrus but connected to it through Fortunella spp. A broad distribution of species has been found that should be taken into account to sample new genotypes in the search of desired characters in order to fully and efficiently use genetic resources for citrus improvement.