Genetic diversity in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae .1. Intraspecies and intragenus genetic variability
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Cita bibliográficaHerrero, R., Asins, M.J., Carbonell, EA, Navarro, L. (1996). Genetic diversity in the orange subfamily Aurantioideae .1. Intraspecies and intragenus genetic variability. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 92(5), 599-609.
Despite the great economic importance of citrus, its phylogeny and taxonomy remain a matter of controversy. Moreover pathogens of increased virulence and dramatic environmental changes are currently spreading or emerging. The objectives of the present paper, measuring genetic variability and studying its pattern of distribution, are crucial steps to optimize sampling strategies in the search of genotypes that tolerate or resist these threatening factors within the huge array of Citrus and Citrus related species. Their intraspecific and intrageneric variability was studied comparatively by means of ten enzymatic systems using eight different measures. The analysis of ten enzymatic systems allowed us to distinguish all the species and all but one artificial hybrid. The species with the lowest genotypic variability are C. myrtifolia, C. deliciosa (willow leaf mandarin), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. limon (lemon) and C. sinensis (sweet orange), while Severinia buxifolia shows the highest value. A broad spectrum of heterozygosity values was found in the collection. Lemons (C. limon, C. meyeri, C. karna, C. volkameriana), limes (C. aurantifolia, C. limettioides, C. lattifolia) and C. bergamia show a very high percentage of heterozygosity which indicates an origin through interspecific hybridization. Two main factors limit genetic intraspecific variability: apomictic reproduction: where nucellar embryos are much more vigorous than the zygotic ones, and nursery-men selecting against variability in the seedling stage of the rootstocks or in propagating the scion cultivars vegetatively. Additionally, self-pollination appears in some species mainly used as rootstocks which would explain their low heterozygosity values. Genetic differences between species and genera are in general high, which suggests that adaptation might have played an important role during the evolution of the orange subfamily.