Fecundity and development of Cirrospilus coachellae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
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The biology of Cirrospilus coachellae Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ecto-parasitoid of the larvae of Marmara gulosa Guillen & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied in the laboratory. In total, 120.3 +/- 21.2 adults were produced per female at 26 degrees C. Females survived an average of 23.5 +/- 4.4 d and parasitized an average of 49.8 +/- 10.2 hosts over their lifetime. C. coachellae is a facultatively gregarious parasitoid with up to eight parasitoids developing per host with an average of 2.5 +/- 0.1 in the laboratory. A female-biased sex ratio of 0.31 (male/total) was exhibited. Development times decreased with increasing temperatures from 23.7 +/- 0.2 d at 20 degrees C to 9.2 +/- 0.1 at 29 degrees C. Estimated lower and upper development thresholds were 14.1 and 36.7 degrees C, respectively. Maximal development rate occurred at 31.3 degrees C, and 138 degree-days was required to complete the cycle.