Viability of ICSI oocytes after caffeine treatment and sperm membrane removal with Triton X-100 in pigs
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AutorGarcia-Mengual,E.; Garcia-Rosello,E.; Alfonso,J.; Salvador,I.; Cebrian-Serrano,A.; Silvestre,M. A.
Non-adequate decondensation of injected sperm nucleus is one the main problems of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in porcine. With the aim of improving pronuclear formation, the effects on activation and embryo development rates of 0.1% Triton X-100 (TX) sperm pre-treatment for membrane removal and/or 5 mM Caffeine (CAF) addition in oocyte manipulating and culture medium for 2 h after ICSI or artificial activation were studied. The effects of 4 different Ca(2+) concentrations contained in the injection medium on embryo development after sham injection were also analysed. In Experiment 1, no significant effect on cleavage or blastocyst rate was detected independently of Ca(2+) concentration contained in the injection medium. in Experiment 2, oocytes injected with TX pre-treated sperm showed a significant higher rate of male pronuclear formation in comparison with oocytes from control group (2PN; 54.1 vs 36.6%). However, no differences on in vitro embryo development, cleavage or blastocyst rates were observed. In Experiment 3, oocytes treated with CAF during and after micromanipulation and injected with sperm pre-treated with TX had a significantly lower oocyte activation rate than any other experimental groups (25.7 vs 56.3-66.3%). No differences were observed in cleavage rates among different experimental groups. However, the CAF group showed a higher blastocyst rate significantly different from TX+CAF group (12.0 vs 1.9%, respectively). In a second approach, the effect of electric field strengths and CAF treatments on oocyte activation was studied. In Experiment 4, oocytes submitted to 0.6 kV/cm showed significant higher activation rates than 1.2 kV/cm ones regardless of the caffeine treatment (83.7 vs 55.9% and 75.7 vs 44.3%; in control and caffeine groups, respectively). No effect of caffeine treatment was observed in any experimental group. In conclusion, TX sperm treatment before ICSI without an additional activation procedure improved male pronuclear formation, but did not improve embryo development until blastocyst stage. No significant effect of caffeine was found when sperm was not treated with TX, although in membrane absence caffeine avoided oocyte activation and embryo development. Finally, caffeine had no effect on female pronuclear formation regardless of electric field strengths applied to the parthenogenetic activation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.