Genetic Diversity Analysis and Population Structure of the Mandarin Germplasm by Nuclear SNP Markers
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Citrus reticulata is considered one of the four main ancestral taxa of cultivated citrus and is widely associated with the mandarin horticultural group. However, several studies suggest introgressions of other taxa and the precise structure of the mandarin group is not known. To analyse the structuration of mandarin germplasm and the potential interspecific introgressions, 208 accessions were genotyped by the KASPar method, with sixty-seven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers mined in 27 nuclear genes and in clementine BAC-ends. These SNP markers were employed for the study of 208 genotypes comprised of 169 ` mandarin-like' genotypes and 39 genotypes belonging to ancestral taxa. Structure software was used to identify groups within the mandarin germplasm. Six mandarin groups were identified, some of them in agreement with the species defined by Tanaka. Many mandarins were located between these mandarin groups, indicating a high level of admixture between the identified parental groups. New insights in the organization of mandarin germplasm and its structure are presented in this work, which will be useful for better management of citrus germplasm collections.