Effects of Spirotetramat on Aonidiella aurantii (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and Its Parasitoid, Aphytis melinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
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Laboratory and field studies were conducted to measure the effects of spirotetramat on life stages of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), and a primary parasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach. Organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible populations responded similarly to spirotetramat, suggesting there is no cross-resistance between these insecticide classes. First and second instar male and female A. aurantii were 10- and 32-fold more susceptible to spirotetramat (LC50 = 0.1-0.2 ppm) compared with early third (LC50 = 1.5 ppm) and late third instar females (LC50 = 5.3 ppm). The LC99 value indicated that late stage third instar females would not be fully controlled by a field rate of spirotetramat; however, spirotetramat would reduce their fecundity by 89%. Field applications of spirotetramat in two water volumes and using two adjuvants (oil and a nonionic spray adjuvant) showed similar reduction in A. aurantii numbers, even though the higher water volume demonstrated more complete coverage. These data suggest that this foliarly applied systemic insecticide can be applied in as little as 2,340 liters/ha of water volume, minimizing application costs, and that the two adjuvants acted similarly. The endoparasitoid, A. melinus, was unaffected by the field rate of spirotetramat when it was applied to the host when the parasitoid was in the egg or larval stage. Adult A. melinus showed 2 wk of moderate reductions in survival when exposed to leaves with field-weathered residues. Spirotetramat is an integrated pest management compatible insecticide, effective in reducing A. aurantii stages and allowing survival of its primary parasitoid A. melinus.