Evolutionary analysis of Citrus tristeza virus outbreaks in Calabria, Italy: two rapidly spreading and independent introductions of mild and severe isolates
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AutorFontana,Anna; Debreczeni,Diana E.; Albanese,Giuliana; Davino,Salvatore; Flores,Ricardo; Rubio,Luis
The evolution of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from outbreaks occurred in Calabria, Italy, was compared with that of CTV outbreaks reported previously in another two proximal Italian regions, Sicily and Apulia. Examination of four genomic regions (genes p20, p25 and p23, and one fragment of open reading frame 1) showed two recombination events, and phylogenetic analysis disclosed two divergent CTV groups in Calabria: one formed by severe and the other by mild isolates. This analysis, together with others involving population genetic parameters, revealed a low migration rate of CTV between the three Italian regions, as well as significant differences in selective pressures, epidemiology and demography, all affecting the genetic structure of CTV populations.