Effects of long-term ozone exposure on citrus: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange
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Three-years-old trees of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu [Mak.] Marc.) cv. Okitsu were exposed to O-3 fumigation during long term (one year) in open-top chambers. As a result of the treatment, chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were modified with respect to trees growing in O-3-free conditions. Net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased and intercellular CO2 concentration increased according to a reduction of the non-cyclic electron flow and a lower capacity to reduce the quinone pool. O-3 also reduced the development of non-photochemical quenching preventing the dissipation of excess excitation energy and, therefore, generated several alterations in photosynthetic apparatus. All these effects were obtained in long-term exposure and higher O-3 concentration. In O-3 ambient conditions, the effects were minor.