Trends in Varietal Composition in Spanish Citrus-Growing and Underlying Variables
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AutorCaballero,Pedro; Carmona,Belinda; Alcon,Francisco; Fernandez-Zamudio,Maria A.; de-Miguel,Maria D.
Citrus cultivars must meet two basic conditions for fresh consumption: i) they should cover the widest possible commercial calendar, and ii) allow continuous adaptation to consumer preferences. For citrus growers, this requires permanent adoption of new technology and changes in the cultivars grown, driven by income-risk criteria, as well as by technical and commercial experience. The duration of an investment depends on the agronomic performance of the cultivar or its commercial life, which may be shortened due to lack of consumer acceptance. The survival of a cultivar depends on many variables: technical, quality, and competitiveness of the cultivar. Spanish citrus production falls into five main groups of cultivars: lemons (10.8%), clementines (25%), mandarin hybrids (8.7%), navel oranges (35%) and common oranges (15%). The most productive cultivars are 'Fino' lemon, 'Navelina' navel, 'Clemenules', 'Lane Late' navel and 'Valencia' sweet orange. In relation to changes in varietal composition, it is of interest the introduction of new cultivars of the clemenules group ('Orogrande', 'Nulessin'), navel ('Powell', 'Rohde', 'Barnfield', 'Chislett' and 'Fukumoto') and Valencia ('Barberina', 'Midknight', 'Valencia Late' Frost and ` Delta Seedless'). There is constant pressure to supply new early clementines cultivars, but their survival is usually short. Currently, mandarin hybrids represent a group with a strong potential to expand.