Comparative genome-wide segregation analysis and map construction using a reciprocal cross design to facilitate citrus germplasm utilization
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Citrus genetic resources are rich but underutilized in breeding because their complex reproductive biology and the scarceness of inheritance studies on agronomic traits. Here, we investigated the genomic distribution of segregation distortion regions, the inheritance of organelle DNA and colinearity between scion citrus linkage maps by using a reciprocal cross design. The parents were Fortune, a hybrid mandarin from C. clementina, and Chandler, a hybrid pummelo from C. grandis that largely differ in fruit size, taste and colour. The inheritance of organelle DNA was studied in 201 hybrids by using four organelle DNA markers, and the linkage maps were based on 174 of those hybrids. Around ten percent of the seedlings derived from the pummelo as female parent showed the same organelle markers as those of the mandarin, indicating a possible exception to their expected maternal inheritance in citrus. Most segregation distortion affects just the allele frequencies, generally representing differences in pollen fertilization success, as a likely consequence of the presence of gametal factors affecting the functionality of gametes and pollen-pistil interactions. The large extension of colinearity found when comparing the C. grandis and C. clementina linkage maps to those previously reported for rootstock species (C. aurantium and P. trifoliata), will be helpful to infer the position of orthologous genes and QTLs in citrus species and for a more useful genetic characterization of citrus germplasm collections.