Effect of a Field-Source Mixture of Citrus Viroids on the Performance of Nules; Clementine and Navelina; Sweet Orange Trees Grafted on Carrizo Citrange
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AutorBani Hashemian,S. M.; Serra,P.; Barbosa,C. J.; Juarez,J.; Aleza, Pablo; Corvera,J. M.; Lluch,A.; Pina,J. A.; Duran-Vila,N.
A field-source mixture of citrus viroids was characterized and shown to contain Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), and Citrus dwarfing viroid (CDVd). Sequencing results showed that: (i) CEVd contained the P(L) and P(R) characteristic of class A variants; (ii) HSVd was a noncachexia variant; (iii) CBLVd was related to CVd-Ia variants; (iv) CDVd was a mixture of two types (CVd-IIIa and CVd-IIIb) of variants. The presence of the same type of variants in inoculated clementine (Citrus clementina 'Nules') and sweet orange (C. sinensis 'Navelina') trees on Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x C. sinensis) rootstocks was confirmed. The effect of infection was determined by assessing the performance of infected and noninfected trees growing in the field. Infection resulted in small trees with reduced canopy, yielding a reduced crop. Fruit characteristics were also affected: (i) clementine and sweet orange fruits from infected trees were larger than those from noninfected trees; (ii) clementine fruits from infected trees differed in shape from those of noninfected trees; (iii) sweet orange fruits from infected trees had maturity indexes and juice contents higher than those from noninfected trees; (iv) in both species, the density of the juice, the amount of soluble solids, and the acidity of the fruits from infected trees were lower than those of fruits from noninfected trees. Infected trees had a poorly developed root system with fibrous roots containing fewer amyloplasts than noninfected trees. The results of an in vitro assay on the induction and development of roots in cultured explants are discussed.