SALTIRSOIL: a simulation model for the mid to long-term prediction of soil salinity in irrigated agriculture
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The SALTIRSOIL model predicts soil salinity, sodicity and alkalinity in irrigated land using basic information on soil, climate, crop, irrigation management and water quality. It extends the concept of the WATSUIT model to include irrigation and crop management practices, advances in the calculation of evapotranspiration and new algorithms for the water stress coefficient and calculation of electrical conductivity. SALTIRSOIL calculates the soil water balance and soil solution concentration over the year. A second module, SALSOLCHEM, calculates the inorganic ion composition of the soil solution at equilibrium with soil calcite and gypsum at the soil's CO(2) partial pressure. Results from comparing predicted and experimentally determined concentrations, observations and predictions of pH, alkalinity and calcium concentration in calcite-saturated solutions agree to the second significant figure; in gypsum-saturated solutions the standard difference between observations and predictions is <3% in absolute values. The algorithms in SALTIRSOIL have been verified and SALSOLCHEM validated for the reliable calculation of soil salinity, sodicity and alkalinity at water saturation in well-drained irrigated lands. In simulations for horticultural crops in southeast Spain, soil solution concentration factors at water saturation, quotients of electrical conductivity (EC(25)) at saturation to electrical conductivity in the irrigation water, and quotients of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are very similar to average measured values for the area.