Influence of ground predators on the survival of the Mediterranean fruit fly pupae, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus orchards
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AutorUrbaneja,Alberto; Marí,F. G.; Tortosa,D.; Navarro,C.; Vanaclocha,Pilar; Bargues,L.; Castañera,P.
A survey of predaceous ground arthropods was conducted in two citrus orchards in Valencia, Spain, and their role as predators of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae was evaluated under field and laboratory conditions. A total of 2959 predaceous arthropods were collected in pitfall traps in the two orchards from July 2003 to September 2004. Ants (Hymenoptera) were the most abundant group (83.61%), followed by Staphylinidae (7.77%), Araneae (5.24%), Dermaptera (2.13%), Carabidae (0.64%) and Cicindelidae (0.61). Pupae disappearance rates were higher during the warmer months of the year, from May to October, and in the orchard with the largest ant population. In the warm season, the mean survival of C. capitata pupae was 35.7±6.2% and 14.3±6.7%, respectively, in both orchards. Patterns of predation, inferred from broken or abnormal pupae, were more frequently observed in the colder months, from November to April, when spiders, Staphylinidae and other predators were present. In the cold season, the combined effect of predation and low temperature led to an adult emergence rate of 26.7±9.9% and 13.0±7.5% in both orchards. In no-choice laboratory trials, all predator species tested fed at significantly different rates on C. capitata pupae. Preliminary data show that the Carabids, Pseudophonus rufipes (Duftschmid) and Harpalus distinguendus (Degeer), were the most voracious species, consuming more than one pupa per day. © 2006 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).