Effects of temperature on development and survival of Cirrospilus sp. near lyncus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoid of Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
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Cirrospilus sp. near lyncus is one of the most abundant indigenous parasitoids of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton found in Spain. In this study, data on the influence of constant temperatures, ranging from 1 to 40°C, on survival and development of the parasitoid are presented. Complete development only occurred between 10 and 35°C, but eggs and pupae could survive at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. Upper and lower development thresholds were estimated to occur at 37.8 and 8.8°C, respectively. Maximal development rate occurred at 31.8°C and thermal constant was 182.0 DD. Therefore, under typical Mediterranean climatic conditions, development of C. sp. near lyncus could continue throughout the year. Because P. citrella populations usually collapse at the beginning of winter, and do not become conspicuous until the end of spring, provision of alternative hosts within citrus orchards would presumably favor the winter permanence of opportunistic C. sp. near lyncus, and thus increase the impact of this parasitoid early in the season, when parasitism on P. citrella is very low.