Analysis of the detachment of citrus fruits by vibration using artificial vision
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The vibratory behaviour of citrus fruits is studied using slow-motion cameras in order to gain a better understanding of the parameters involved in fruit detachment when mechanical harvesting is done using shakers. Single citrus fruits with a small portion of stem were vibrated using strokes from 60 mm to 180 mm and frequencies from 3 Hz to 18 Hz. The movement was recorded at 300 fps and the main parameters considered for fruit detachment were determined through the analysis of the video sequences. Image-processing algorithms created for this purpose were applied to the automated estimation of the centroid of the fruit, the angle of the stem pistil axis, and the position of some selected points in the fruit in each frame of the video sequences to obtain dynamic parameters such as the position, speed and acceleration of the fruit during the movement until it is detached. The signals obtained from the image processing were filtered, providing results in accordance with the calibration systems. In general, results suggest that the inertial forces transmitted to the fruit were lower than the tensile forces required to detach the fruit by pulling it in the stem pistil direction. The largest peaks were observed using long strokes that required fewer cycles for detachment. On the other hand, short strokes combined with high frequencies needed more cycles, and thus a fatigue phenomenon was present. Short strokes and low frequencies were unable to detach some fruit. (C) 2014 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.