Comparison between Poncirus and Citrus genetic linkage maps
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Five genetic linkage maps were constructed for the parents of three progenies: Citrus aurantium (A) x Poncirus trifoliata var. Flying Dragon (Pa), C. volka-meriana (V) x R trifoliata var. Rubidoux (Pv) and a self-pollination of P. trifoliata var. Flying Dragon (Pp). The number of polymorphic markers assayed ranged from 48 for Pa to 120 for A according to the heterozygosity of each parental. As our focus was on genome comparison, most of the markers were newly generated simple sequence repeats. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphisms based on four retrotransposon sequences isolated from Citrus spp were also used to saturate the maps. These polymorphisms were much more frequent in A (53) than in Pa (15) and randomly distributed throughout both genomes. Since comparative genomics and quantitative trait locus analysis applicability depends on the reliability of marker ordering, the causes of variation in marker order were investigated. Around 25% of the markers showed gametal segregation distortions. Segregation distortions were also observed at the zygotic level towards a reduction in the observed frequency of homozygotes from that expected in linkage groups 5 and 7. The presence of balanced lethal factors or gametal incompatibility genes in those genomic regions would explain a zygotic advantage of heterozygotes at these specific regions. Four differences in genomic organization were observed; three are putative translocations and affect homeologous linkage groups 3, 7 and 11, where highly distorted markers are found. Other causes of variation in marker order are also discussed: the introduction of new markers in the map, lowering the LOD score and the mapping software. These results represent the first comparative mapping analysis among Citrus and Poncirus species.